*idyll \EYE-dl\ (noun) –
1 : A simple descriptive work, either in poetry or prose, dealing with simple, rustic life; pastoral scenes; and the like.
2 : A narrative poem treating an epic, romantic, or tragic theme.
3 : A lighthearted carefree episode or experience.
4 : A romantic interlude. "Rather than moving forward, Mel spent all of his time trying to re-create an idyll that never existed except in his imagination." Idyll ultimately derives from Greek eidullion, "a short descriptive poem (usually on pastoral subjects); an idyll," from eidos, "that which is seen; form; shape; figure." The adjective form is idyllic.
ignoramus \ig-nuh-RAY-mus\ (noun) – An ignorant person; a dunce. "I am quite an ignoramus, I know nothing in the world." — Charlotte Bronte, Villette Ignoramus was the name of a character in George Ruggle’s 1615 play of the same name. The name was derived from the Latin, literally, "we are ignorant," from ignorare, "not to know," from ignarus, "not knowing," from ig- (for in-), "not" + gnarus, "knowing, acquainted with, expert in." It is related to ignorant and ignore.
imbue \im-BYOO\ (transitive verb) –
1 : To tinge or dye deeply; to cause to absorb thoroughly; as, "clothes thoroughly imbued with black."
2 : To instill profoundly; to cause to become impressed or penetrated.
"…I propose to throw you into a cataleptic sleep, in order that, while you are in that condition, I may imbue you with an absolute faith in yourself…" — Harry Collingwood, ‘The Adventures of Dick Maitland’
Imbue comes from Latin imbuere, "to wet, to steep, to saturate."
impecunious \im-pih-KYOO-nee-uhs\ (adjective) – Not having money; habitually without money; poor.
"Jimmy’s perennially impecunious state was supported by his rich, aged grandfather, upon whose largesse he was absolutely dependent."
Impecunious is derived from Latin im-, in-, "not" + pecuniosus, "rich," from pecunia, "property in cattle, hence money," from pecu, "livestock."
implacable \im-PLAK-uh-bull\ (adjective) –
Not placable; not to be appeased; incapable of being pacified; inexorable; as, an implacable foe.
‘It is the truth. Truth is implacable. But the nature and meaning of this truth is not.’ — John Fowles, ‘The Magus’
Implacable ultimately comes from Latin implacabilis, from in-, not + placabilis, placable, from placo, placare, to soothe, calm, appease.
importunate \im-POR-chuh-nit\ (adjective)
– Troublesomely urgent; overly persistent in request or demand; unreasonably solicitous.
"Bernard was prevented from getting any actual work done by the daily deluge of importunate business which kept him uselessly busy day after day."
Importunate is derived from Latin importunus, "unsuitable, troublesome, (of character) assertive, insolent, inconsiderate."
inamorata \in-am-uh-RAH-tuh\ (noun) – A woman whom one is in love with; a mistress.
"Neil was the sort of cynical romanticism expert who’d counsel switching from one inamorata to another every few months."
Inamorata comes from Italian innamorata, feminine of innamorato, from the past participle of innamorare, "to inspire with love," from in- (from Latin) + amore, "love" (from Latin amor, from amare, "to love"). A man with whom one is in love is an inamorato.
inculcate \in-KUHL-kayt; IN-kuhl-kayt\, transitive verb) –
To teach and impress by frequent repetition or instruction.
"As we have said, Franval was generously endowed with all the charm of youth and all the talents which embellish it; but so great was his conempt of both moral and religious duties that it had become impossible for his tutors to inculcate any of them in him." — Marquis de Sade, ‘Eugenie de Franval’
Inculcate is from Latin inculcare, "to tread upon, to force upon," from in-, "in, on" + calcare, "to trample," from calx, calc-, "heel."
ineffable \in-EF-uh-buhl\ (adjective) –
1 – Incapable of being expressed in words; unspeakable; unutterable; indescribable.
2 – Not to be uttered; taboo.
"I have no objection to reinvention or coinage where necessary, but I wonder whether ineffable would have served Mr. Warren ‘s purpose…" — William Safire, ‘In Love With Norma Loquendi’
Ineffable is from Latin ineffabilis, from in-, "not" + effabilis, "utterable," from effari, "to utter," from ex-, "out" + fari, "to speak."
inimical \ih-NIM-ih-kul\ (adjective) –
1 : Having the disposition or temper of an enemy; unfriendly; unfavorable.
2 : Opposed in tendency, influence, or effects; antagonistic; adverse.
"The gods did not care — or rather, were inimical. Beyond question, they were inimical to him." — Gene Wolfe, ‘Litany of the Long Sun’
nimical comes from Late Latin inimicalis, from Latin inimicus, unfriendly, adverse, hostile, from in-, not + amicus, friendly, well-wishing, favorable to, from amare, to love.
iniquity \i-NIK-wi-tee\ (noun) –
1 : Gross immorality or injustice; wickedness.
2 : A grossly immoral act; a sin.
‘Kenny detected an innate iniquity in the company, given that the top brass made in excess of millions of dollars while the hard-working employees all made significantly less than a living wage.’
Middle English iniquite, from Old French, from Latin iniquitas, from iniquus, unjust, harmful : in-, not + aequus, equal.
insuperable \in-SOO-pur-uh-bul\ (adjective) – Incapable of being passed over, surmounted, or overcome; insurmountable; as, "insuperable difficulties."
"While the obstacles to their getting a house may have seemed insuperable in toto, taken individually they were quite easily surmounted — it was the sheer number of them which was the most daunting part."
insuperable comes from Latin insuperabilis, from in-, "not" + superare, "to go above or over, to surmount," from super, "above, over."
introspection \in-truh-SPEK-shuhn\ (noun) – The act or process of self-examination; contemplation of one’s own thoughts and feelings; a looking inward.
"One could argue that most of the trouble in the world is caused by introspection. I’m not thinking of things like war, famine, disease, or violent crime — not that sort of trouble." — Nick Hornby, ‘A Long Way Down’
Introspection derives from the past participle of Latin introspicere, "to look inside," from intro-, "to the inside" + specere, "to look."
invective \in-VEK-tiv\ (noun) –
1 : An abusive expression or speech; a vehement verbal attack.
2 : Insulting or abusive language.
(adjective) – 1 : Of, relating to, or characterized by insult, abuse, or denunciatory language.
"But one can also note that he chose a fitting image for himself, going out in a duel of honor, armed all over with spikes of witty invective and a specialised knowledge of insult." — Adrian Frazier, George Moore, 1852-1933
invective comes from Late Latin invectivus, "reproachful, abusive," from Latin invectus, past participle of invehi, "to inveigh against."
inveigle \in-VAY-guhl; -VEE-\ (transitive verb) –
1 : To persuade by ingenuity or flattery; to entice.
2 : To obtain by ingenuity or flattery.
"Once a soft touch for those who inveigled her into sparing them her change, Jhenna began to cross the road, begging for some change in her circumstances."
Inveigle comes from Anglo-French enveogler, from Old French aveugler, "to blind, to lead astray as if blind," from aveugle, "blind," from Medieval Latin ab oculis, "without eyes."
Irrupt is derived from the past participle of Latin irrumpere, from ir-, in-, "in" + rumpere, "to break."
Lambaste is perhaps from lam, "to beat soundly; to thrash" + baste, "to beat vigorously."
inveterate \in-VET-uhr-it\ (adjective) –
1 : Firmly established by long persistence; deep-rooted; of long standing.
2 : Fixed in habit by long persistence; confirmed; habitual.
"Normally an invterate drinker of Scotch, the party seemed to be engulfed by a hushed silence when Alan walked in with an open
Inveterate is from the past participle of Latin inveterari, "to grow old, to endure," from in- + vetus, veter-, "old." It is related to veteran, "one who is long experienced in some activity or capacity; an old soldier of long service; one who has served in the armed forces." The noun form is inveteracy or inveterateness.
iota \eye-OH-tuh\ (noun) –
1 : The ninth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding to the English i.
2 : A very small quantity or degree; a jot; a bit.
"A brilliant negotiator, James had not moderated his demands one iota in seven years."
Iota is the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet. The word jot also derives from iota.
irrefragable \ih-REF-ruh-guh-buhl\ (adjective) – Impossible to refute; incontestable; undeniable; as, an irrefragable argument; irrefragable evidence.
"Juan had the most irrefragable evidence of the absolute truth and soundness of the principle upon which his invention was based."
Irrefragable derives from Late Latin irrefragabilis, from Latin in-, "not" + refragari, "to oppose."
irrupt \ih-RUHPT\ (intransitive verb) –
1 : To burst in forcibly or suddenly; to intrude.
2 : (Ecology) To increase rapidly in number.
"What sounds are these that sting as they caress, that irrupt into my soul and twine about my heart?" — Nikolai Gogol, Dead Souls